PRINCIPLES OF EXERCISE
PRINCIPLES OF EXERCISE There are certain underlying principles regarding exercise and activity. One should be aware of these basic concepts in order to maximize the effectiveness of sport and exercise program. Your personalized program should be designed to reflect each of these principles in such a manner that you can most easily accomplish your goals. Intensity Duration Frequency Volume Adaptation Progressive Overload Gradualness Rest and Recuperation Overtraining Specificity Goal Defining Individuality Concentration and Focus Periodization Injury Prevention Let’s have an overview about the initial four principles. Will try to cover all in parts. • INTENSITY Intensity refers to how hard one exercise. Intensity can also describe the amount of energy needed to perform a particular exercise or activity. For resistance training, intensity refers to a percentage of the person's repetition maximum (RM). The repetition maximum figure represents the greatest amount of weight that can be lifted in good form for a specific exercise and a specific number of times. For example, 1RM stands for the greatest amount of weight an individual can properly lift one time, while 10RM represents the heaviest weight with which one can properly perform ten repetitions. • DURATION Duration refers to the total time an exercise session or activity should be conducted. For resistance training, duration refers to either the time of a single contraction, as in a 5 second isometric contraction, or the total time of the program itself, as in a 6-week weight-training program. Duration can also be used to represent the length of a single resistance training session. • FREQUENCY Frequency represents the number of training sessions per week. Frequency is expressed in terms of times per day or days per week. • VOLUME Volume refers to the total amount of work done during a specified period of time, such as a single exercise session or an entire week of activity sessions. For resistance training, volume refers to the total number of repetitions performed during a specific time period. Thus, volume can be expressed for a single training session or a series of training sessions. Resistance training volumes make use of the terms sets and reps. A rep refers to a repetition, or the proper performance of an exercise from beginning to end. A set represents a given number of consecutive repetitions of an exercise that is accomplished without resting. In addition, the load volume represents the total amount of weight lifted during a training session. For example, an individual who performs three sets of eight repetitions with 10kgs has lifted a total load volume of 240kgs. (3 sets x 8 reps x 10kgs = 240kgs.).